Having gained its independence from Britain in 1947, India is the world’s most ethnically diverse nation with 2,500 distinct people groups and more than 1.17 billion residents. India has more unreached individuals than any other nation with the caste system remaining the foundation of the country’s social order for centuries. Despite an affirmative-action policy, caste-based discrimination continues. Even with significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty and widespread corruption, rapid economic development is fuelling India's rise on the world stage. The current administration emphasizes economic growth and social progress on issues, including caste and freedom of religion. However, millennia of oppression will take some time to overturn.

Though India’s constitution provides full religious freedom of worship and witness for all religions, there remains opposition. The rise of Hindutva extremism -- “India is Hindu only” -- resulted in a hate campaign against Muslims in the early 1990s and against Christians in the late 1990s, as followers of “foreign” religions. Because large numbers of Dalit groups (those having no caste) have turned away from Hinduism embraced Christianity, anti-conversion laws were passed in several of India’s state to “protect” India’s masses from being converted by fraudulent means. In reality, this law is merely a means of control, keeping the caste social order intact by Hindu extremists. Currently, six states have anti-conversion laws. Degrees of persecution depend on the strength of Hindutva groups from one state to the next.

Persecution of Christians is most intense in Orissa state. After a prominent Hindu swami was murdered in 2008 (most likely by Maoist guerrillas), Hindu extremists responded by venting their wrath against Christians. More than 120 Christians were murdered, hundreds of churches destroyed and around 52,000 Christians displaced from their homes. Harsh anti-conversion regulations have done little to placate Hindu extremists. In many districts, some threat remains for Christians to reconvert to Hinduism: leave their village or face death.

Prayer Requests

  • Pray that despite the intimidation and violence in many of India’s states, Christians will unashamedly preach the gospel.
  • Ask that indigenous Christians and foreign missionaries will minister in ways that do not hint at fraudulent conversions, unmasking the intentions behind the anti-conversion legislation.
  • Pray for India’s leaders to reign with justice and righteousness.
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India Profile

1,189,172,906 (July 2011 est.)

Ethnicity (%)
Indo-Aryan (72), Dravidian (25), Mongoloid and other (3)

Religion (%)
Hindu (74.33), Muslim (14.20), Christian* (5.84), Sikh (1.86), Other (3.27)
*For many reasons, the most recent census (2001) significantly underenumerated Christians at 2.34%.
Christian researchers in India indicate much higher results, even up to 9%. New 2011 census results are expected before 2013.

President Pratibha Devisingh Patil

Government type
Federal republic

Legal system
Based on English common law; separate personal law codes apply to Christians, Hindus and Muslims.

Statistics provided by CIA World Factbook and Operation World.